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A traditional Indian delicacy made from blended local lentils. Through these efforts, appreciable progress has been made in genetic improvement, agronomic practices, root storage and in the development of processing technology and rural infrastructure.
Concerted efforts have also been made to introduce improved practices to farmers. Thus, improved varieties now occupy approximately 0.
This has had a great effect on cassava land area expansion and production growth. Despite the rapid growth in cassava production, the cassava subsector in Nigeria is still constrained by a number of factors, namely pests and diseases, agronomic problems, shortage of planting materials, inconsistent policy measures, poor market access, limited diversification of processing options, inefficient extension delivery system and inadequate access to improved processing technology.
This will save labour and improve the efficiency of processing, raise the quality and enhance marketability of products.
The design of such machines should be gender-sensitive, bearing in mind the cardinal role of women in processing; strengthening of extension-farmer linkage with research to facilitate the ongoing spread of cultivars, management practice and processing techniques.
This should lead to the mobilization of farmers through emphasis on a participatory development approach, family- or group-based extension and seed multiplication activities involving due recognition of the role of women in production, processing and marketing and assistance that would enable all farmers to take advantage of development programmes as far as possible; adequate and sustained research funding which must be timely released;.
Nigeria covers km 2 on the west coast of Africa; vegetation ranges from tropical forest in the south to the sahel savannah in the north.
The country comprises the Federal Capital Territory and thirty-six 36 states. The Federal Government is responsible for economic development policy while the states have jurisdiction over activities confined within their boundaries, including implementation of development projects.
Nigeria has a population of about million people, of which 65 percent is rural-based and is growing at a rate of 2.
Prior to the discovery of oil in the s, agriculture was the mainstay of the Nigerian economy, accounting for about two-thirds of the Gross Domestic Product GDP.
With the oil boom, agriculture's contribution to GDP declined to 25 percent by and Nigeria moved from being a large exporter to a major importer of agricultural products.
Since the mids, as a result of a decline in oil revenue and policy measures implemented under a Structural Adjustment Programme SAP , agriculture's contribution to GDP has risen to about 40 percent.
Of this area, 71 million ha 77 percent are considered cultivable; about 32 million ha 45 percent of the total cultivable land area are cultivated.
Annual rainfall ranges from 2 mm in the coastal areas to about mm in the far north. A wide range of agro-ecological conditions allows for very diverse crop production.
The northern part of the country is suitable for sorghum, millet, maize, cowpea, groundnut and cotton. The main food crops in the middle belt and the south are cassava, yam, plantain and maize.
Low-lying and seasonally flooded areas are increasingly being used for rice production. Broadly speaking, the cassava-growing belt falls within three agro-ecological zones of the southeast, southwest and the central areas.
The first two zones fall within the humid tropics. The predominant soil types are the ferralitic soils which are rich in free iron but low in mineral reserves and are consequently low in fertility.
The central zone lies between the southern and the drier northern agro-ecological zones. The soils are poor, due to leaching from heavy and intense rainfall and so limited fertility is a constraint to agricultural production.
As part of the IF AD global strategy for cassava development, Nigeria has been selected to conduct a country case study among other nations.
The selection of Nigeria is largely based on the considerable level of experience in the development, multiplication and processing of cassava into various food, feed and raw material forms and the continued dominance in cassava production.
These gains would need to be sustained, especially through a diversification of usage of cassava for industrial purposes, hence this case study would help in formulating a future strategy for the realization of this important goal.
The report of this country case study which was carried out across the major cassava-producing states, would provide an easy reference for the various countries to share experiences which may be useful for future project interventions and development strategy in the cassava subsector.
The purpose of this study was to analyse the past and present situation of cassava in Nigeria with a view to describing the lessons learned from past development interventions and their implications for a strategy for future investment in cassava research and development.
A description of the evolution of cassava development in Nigeria, which includes the identification of significant interventions that have influenced evolution.
Criteria used for analysing the relative success of each intervention include:. A synthesis of the implications for a future strategy for cassava development in Nigeria.
The case study was carried out using a combination of approaches. First, a comprehensive review of existing literature on the organization and management of cassava crop economy in Nigeria was undertaken.
Secondly, quantitative information on the area, production, marketing, etc. To supplement these two approaches, the Rapid Rural Appraisal RRA methodology was adopted to provide information that the literature and personal interviews could not supply.
Cassava is one of the most important crops in Nigeria. It is the most widely cultivated crop in the southern part of the country in terms of area devoted to it and number of farmers growing it.
Indeed, it is grown by almost every household. Cassava has also increased in importance in the Middle Belt in recent years.
In all places, cassava has become very popular as a food and cash crop and is fast replacing yam and other traditional staples of the area.
In all, over four-fifths of the cultivable land area is suitable for cassava growing Figure 1. Agro-ecological suitability zones for the cultivation of cassava, based on combined data for soils, mean rainfall, mean temperature, temperature range and the length of growing season in Nigeria.
Cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz was introduced into central Africa from south America in the sixteenth century by the early Portuguese explorers Jones, It was probably the emancipated slaves who introduced the cassava crop into southern Nigeria, as they returned to the country from South America via the islands of Sao Tome and Fernando Po.
At that time there were Portuguese colonies off Nigeria's shores Ekandem, Cassava, however, did not become important in the country until the end of the nineteenth century when processing techniques were introduced, as many more slaves returned home.
Cassava is important, not only as a food crop but even more so as a major source of income for rural households. Nigeria is currently the largest producer of cassava in the world with an annual production of over 34 million tonnes of tuberous roots.
Cassava is largely consumed in many processed forms in Nigeria. Its use in the industry and livestock feed, is well known, but is gradually increasing, especially as import substitution becomes prominent in the industrial sector of the economy.
As a cash crop, cassava generates cash income for the largest number of households in comparison with other staples Table 1. It is produced with relevant purchased inputs as frequently as and in some cases more frequently than other staples.
A large proportion of total production, probably larger than that of most staples, is planted annually for sale.
As a food crop, cassava has some inherent characteristics which make it attractive, especially to the smallholder farmers in Nigeria. First, it is rich in carbohydrates especially starch and consequently has a multiplicity of end uses.
Secondly, it is available all year round, making it preferable to other, more seasonal crops such as grains, peas and beans and other crops for food security.
Compared to grains, cassava is more tolerant of low soil fertility and more resistant to drought, pests and diseases.
Furthermore, its roots are storable in the ground for months after they mature. Percentage distribution of food crop cash income of households producing major crops.
The socioeconomic importance of cassava and the accidental introduction of cassava mealybug which ravaged most cassava fields in the major producing areas led to the Government's direct intervention in the subsector, in the implementation of the IFAD-assisted Cassava Multiplication Project CMP between and In the early s, Nigerian cassava production fell drastically due to the combined effects of pests mealybug and green spider mite and diseases mosaic virus and cassava bacterial blight , thereby posing a threat to national food security.
Cassava production in the country has been increasing for the past 20 or more years. A recent survey of the cassava-growing areas shows that in more than 90 percent of the 65 representative villages, the farmer group respondents reported an increasing trend in cassava production over the 20 years prior to the interview in Nweke et al.
Further analysis of the available production data shows that, on the average annual basis, the harvested land area was over 80 percent higher in — than in — Both the yield and of course, the overall production showed a similar trend.
Total production at present is estimated at over 34 million tonnes Table 2. With this production level, Nigeria is the largest producer of cassava in the world.
Cassava production was reported to be increasing among villages where cassava, yam, rice, beans or peas, were the most important crops based on farmers' ranking in the cropping system Ugwu, This implies that cassava was replacing these major crops, including fallow and pasture land in those villages.
Unless fenced round, which is prohibitive considering the relatively low value of the crop, cassava fields could be destroyed by cattle, especially during the dry season when pasture is scarce.
The villages with declining production trend were mostly located in the non-humid climate zone. Where soil fertility is low in this zone with short rainfall duration, farmers with a limited supply of fertilizer would prefer to grow short duration crops such as millet or sorghum.
Reasons adduced for the increasing trend by the farmer group respondents were rapid population growth and market demand. These two factors are related, since rapid population growth tends to increase market demand.
The proportion of villages where cassava was increasing was significantly higher in the high population density zone 95 percent than in the low population density zone 65 percent Ugwu, Estimates of annual area cultivated, root yields and total output for cassava in Nigeria during — Other factors which were not quite evident to the group respondents but which could explain the increasing trend may include: The positive relationship between the above-mentioned factors and the expansion in cassava production may be explained as follows:.
Cassava root yield is significantly higher for improved than for local varieties Nweke et al. Higher root yield will result in larger total production per unit area;.
Under this system, the relatively low field labour requirement contrasts with the high processing labour demand Fresco, It displays an exceptional ability to adapt to climate change,  with a tolerance to low soil fertility, resistance to drought conditions, pests and diseases, and suitability to store its roots for long periods underground even after they mature.
Use of fertilizers is limited, and it is also grown on fallow lands. The land holding for farming in Nigeria is between 0.
Diseases affecting cassava crop are mosaic disease , bacterial blight , anthracnose , and root rot. Eager to promote self-sufficiency, the government wants to promote the use of cassava while curtailing rice and wheat imports.
An adopted innovation is the introduction of vitamin A -rich cassava. The federal Government of Nigeria launched a project to introduce pro-Vitamin A cassava varieties to 1.
The Presidential Initiative by former president, Olusegun Obasanjo, on composite cassava flour was, however, reversed even before it reached maturity by his successor, President Umaru Musa Yar' Adua.
Boma Angar and Hon. Ayo Olubori are of the strong opinion that the new FG Cassava Initiative by President Goodluck Jonathan will suffer the same fate as the old one except backed by a legislative bill.
Cassava, which is rich in starch in the form of carbohydrate , has multiple uses. It is consumed in many processed forms, in the industry and also as livestock feed.
Flours are of three types, yellow garri, white garri, or intermediate colour, with yellow garri considered the best product in Nigeria.